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Get to know us better! Gain valuable insights into how we think by visiting our blog, or take a look at the industry events we're frequenting on our events page. You can also geek out with us by attending one of our security management webinars, or dive head first into the products and solutions we provide in our Resource Library. There's lots to keep you busy! 



Steal This List of New Year’s Resolutions
Jan 04, 2019
Happy 2019! The holidays are pretty much over and it’s back to the daily grind. At some point in your life, most of you have…
12 Days of Cybersecurity Awareness
Dec 20, 2018
At FireMon we eat, sleep, and breathe Cybersecurity. And while I generally write about the day-to-day challenges of the enterprise, I thought it might be…
Keep the Lights on Your NERC CIP Compliance with FireMon
Dec 12, 2018
As a big American football fan, I have always been amazed at the amount of preparation the teams and the National Football League (NFL) go…
Notes from the Field: AWS re:Invent 2018
Dec 06, 2018
AWS re:Invent 2018 is in the books, and this one did not disappoint, with presentations and sessions spread across five hotel conference centers populated by…

A Practical History of the Firewall - Part 2: The Value of Management

This post originally appeared on LinkedIn. It is Part 2 of 4 of FireMon Co-Founder and Chief Product Strategist, Jody Brazil’s, series “A Practical History of the Firewall.”

Open Ended Up to 1024 Px Wide - network-chalkboard.jpgCheck Point and stateful inspection firewalls won the early battle against proxy firewalls (Part 1: Early Days). It’s easy to suggest that it was all about the inspection technology, but that misses a key innovation of the Check Point solution: Policy Management. Stateful inspection firewalls winning out over the proxy competition in the mid-90s was due, in significant part, to ease of management.

Much of this article is focused on Check Point. This is primarily due to the dominant role Check Point played in the firewall market in the late 90s and early 2000s. However, it is also likely due to my exposure to Check Point in those years. I welcome your perspective and look forward to your comments.

The mid-90s was a time when networks were rapidly evolving. For example, ethernet was an option, but not always the local network protocol in use (remember token ring?). Connecting to the Internet was not assumed, it was discussed. Dial-up was still common, and AOL was the dominant player. To suggest that firewalls were mainstream technology would misunderstand the Internet as mainstream. One of the implications of this fast-changing network was a significant amount of ignorance and inexperience. In this context, the manageability of a firewall should not be overlooked as a key market driver for the eventual winner in this market.

Today, in software development, we talk about User Experience and Usability. While those weren’t the buzzwords at the time, the reason we talk about them today mattered just as much then. Customers "liked" the product better. So while security and performance mattered, the usability of the Check Point firewall GUI should not be dismissed.

To quote a Gauntlet sales rep at the time, "It didn't matter who the prospect was, every account I went into, I had to fight the Check Point GUI - and usually lose."

Check Point introduced their firewall with central management and a very innovative user interface. A few of the key capabilities included:

  • A graphical rule editor
  • Central object repository shared among the firewall policies
  • Central logging
  • Multi-domain management and OPSEC

The Check Point Policy Editor

The concept of a firewall rule being a 5-tuple of source, destination, protocol, port (protocol and port were combined into a single object referred to as a service) and action existed long before the Check Point policy editor. Early access control lists supported this concept in the 80s. However, Check Point changed the paradigm with the graphical rule editor. No longer was it necessary to know CLI syntax to create a rule. A mouse and a few clicks is all it took. 

In addition, rule editing was augmented with useful features like copy and paste, user-defined comments, multiple objects per column. This last point about multiple objects per column was revolutionary. Prior access control lists only supported a single source, single destination and single service in the respective columns. The support for multiple objects made each rule more powerful, and editing a policy often became an act of modifying an existing rule versus creating new rules. Much of this policy editor was predicated on another advancement, the central object repository.

The Check Point Central Object Repository

Historically, access control lists were created with a reference to a specific IP address for the source or destination. This worked, but if a system's IP changed, it meant that every rule would need updated. Similar to reusable source code, Check Point realized that creating a central object repository and using those objects in the rules would be a better strategy. Now if a host changed its IP, only the object needed to be updated, and the policy would automatically properly reflect that update since the policy used a reference to the stored object. In addition, it was possible to create groups of these objects (and groups of groups) to enable reuse of common groups of objects throughout the policy. These were significant advancements for more effective policy management.

Central Logging

An extremely common problem with firewalls is blocking the wrong traffic. Particularly when placing a firewall between two networks that had previously not been segmented, which in the late 90s was the case with nearly every new firewall deployment. The central logging of all firewall logs that was also easily searchable made diagnosing policy errors very obvious and comparatively simple. A user could report an issue, provide a source IP / destination IP combination, and an administrator could find the "drop" log in the log viewer and the associated rule that caused the drop (or alternatively find an "accept" log and tell the user they were wrong). Mistakes were, and still are, common with firewall policy administration, so easy troubleshooting was a key value-add to any firewall platform.

Multi-Domain Management and OPSEC

In the early 2000s, Check Point doubled-down on the power of management by introducing multi-domain management with Provider-1 and integration APIs with OPSEC. Both were a significant bet on the power of management to separate Check Point from other firewall competitors - and it worked.

Provider-1, as the name would suggest, was targeted at the provider community, telecommunications and managed service providers. While providers were early adopters of the technology, enterprises quickly found reasons to be consumers of the product as well. Key capabilities including permission control, management and UI performance by splitting up large policies and object databases, and global rules that could be applied and enforced globally were all key features desired by large enterprises. In large part, these were limitations in the standard management platform. While some could argue that Check Point should have fixed the management platform versus requiring customers to pay a significant premium for Provider-1, customers saw the benefits and were willing to pay for these advanced management capabilities.

OPSEC was a partner program and collection of APIs released by Check Point to encourage third-party product integration. Early successes including reporting products that used the Log Export API (LEA), URL filtering products using the URL Filtering Protocol (UFP) and management products, such as FireMon, using the Check Point Management Interface (CPMI). 

The program and integrations were a huge success. Today, there are well over 100 OPSEC partners offering some integration capability into the platform. This ecosystem of security products gives customers added value and confidence in their investment. Today, we take API integrations for granted, but in 2001 at the launch of OPSEC, this was not nearly as common.

Cisco and the CLI were a Dominant Player

The market wasn't completely dominated by Check Point and the GUI. While Check Point established itself as a leader in the firewall market with a powerful and easy to use GUI, Cisco remained true to its roots with a command line interface (CLI) in the Pix. The Pix was an earlier competitor in the firewall market, dating back to 1994 and acquired by Cisco in 1995. The familiarity of Cisco and the CLI to network administrators made the Pix the preferred choice when the network team was responsible for security.

Check Point would chip away at this advantage with their security features and GUI aided by a slow shift in enterprise organizational structure where security would become a separate group from the network team. As this shift happened, the existing relationship Cisco had with the network team played a diminishing role in firewall vendor selection.

The enhanced management capabilities helped establish Check Point's position in the market and reinforced the value of management for security products. But, just as performance helped Check Point beat the proxy in the 90s, in the years ahead, performance would once again be a key decision criteria, and this time Check Point would be threatened.



Nov 06, 2018 AWS Network Security Deep Dive
Running workloads in the cloud makes provisioning and setup easier—just spin up a VM. But you might be surprised by how many firewalls you’ll end up with in the cloud if you follow best practices. Cloud providers are clear on this point. Amazon says, “Security and Compliance is a shared responsibility between AWS and the customer… The customer assumes responsibility and management of the guest operating system (including updates and security patches), other associated application software as well as the configuration of the AWS provided security group firewall.” In short, cloud security is in your court.
Oct 25, 2018 SC Mag: Continuous Security for the Hybrid Enterprise
The cloud is a notable business advantage, but it does bring numerous security concerns including: a lack of visibility across cloud or between on-premises and cloud environments, monitoring security controls and changes within cloud and multi-cloud environments, and maintaining compliance by monitoring cloud traffic for suspicious and non-compliant behavior. It becomes increasingly complex in hybrid environments because now you're managing security for on-premise, cloud, virtual, container environments, and more.
Oct 11, 2018 Improve Visibility to Reduce Vulnerabilities and Protect Patient Data
Healthcare IT organizations, already burdened with budget constraints and the scarcity of technically proficient staff, must also contend with significant blind spots within their own networks. These blind spots occur everywhere, from endpoints into the cloud, and every blind spot increases the opportunity for attacks such as ransomware to be successful. Lumeta has been deployed at some of the largest enterprises and government agencies based on our ability to eliminate 100% of your IP network and connected device visibility gaps, improve your overall security posture, and reduce the risk of patient data theft.
Sep 20, 2018 The Future of Network Security
Join our guest, Forrester's Chase Cunningham, with FireMon's Vice President, Product Strategy at FireMon, Matt Dean for a look at the future of network security, which will ultimately enable each business team to fully own their security policies.


Resource Library

Audit Compliance


Policy Change

Solution Briefs

Policy Change

White Papers

Visibility Monitoring Management

Analyst Reports

Policy Change

Case Studies

FireMon + Check Point
FireMon and Check Point combine to bring configuration assurance, continuous compliance and reduced risk.
FireMon + Amazon Web Services
FireMon extends orchestration, vulnerability management, and compliance (both internal policy compliance and regulatory compliance) across on-premises, AWS, and hybrid cloud environments.
Global Policy Controller
Overview of FireMon’s Global Policy Controller solution.
Security Manager
Overview of FireMon’s Flagship Firewall Management Solution
Policy Planner
Overview of FireMon’s Change Automation Solution
Policy Optimizer
Overview of FireMon’s Rule Recertification Automation Solution
Risk Analyzer
Overview of FireMon’s Attack Simulation and Risk Measurement Solution
Immediate Insight
Overview of FireMon’s Immediate Insight Solution
FireMon + Palo Alto Networks
FireMon gives Palo Alto Networks users a fusion of vulnerability management, continuous compliance and orchestration capabilities that speed migration to the latest firewall technologies.
FireMon Appliances

Whether you’re monitoring 100 devices or 15,000, on one continent or around the world, we offer a FM appliance with the power and storage capacity to deliver FireMon’s high-performance, highly scalable firewall management and risk analysis solutions.

Compliance and Security for Utilities
Meet NERC requirements and prevent catastrophic infrastructure events.
Immediate Insight and Palo Alto Networks Application Framework
Moving to the Cloud
Central security control for expanding cloud intrastructures.
Risk Mitigation
Eliminate disruptions while removing security risks.
Reduce Security Costs
Continuous security that doesn't break the bank.
Intent-based Network Security
Continuous security starts with intent.
FireMon and Elasticsearch: Warp speed security
Continuous Security for Industrial Enterprises
Command security for PCN and SCADA networks
Internet of Things
Taming the ever-expanding IoT attack surface.
Zero Trust
Continuous Security for Zero Trust Networks
Migrations Made Easy
Speed up adoption of NGFW with FireMon.
Intelligent Security Management
Delivering next-generation security management that boosts productivity and accelerates the agility of business
Intelligent Policy Automation
Intelligent Policy Automation: Orchestrating Change Management with Speed and Security.
Hybrid Cloud Management
Visibility into and control over Cloud Services, including AWS and OpenStack Platforms
Accelerating Incident Response. Immediate Insight in action - Orchestration, automation and analytics for data assembly and discovery
Immediate Insight in action - Orchestration, automation and analytics for data assembly and discovery
Change Simulation & Risk Scoring
Proactively reduce risk based upon network exposure and host accessibility
Check Point Solution Brief
FireMon solutions and Check Point
Cisco Solution Brief

FireMon’s Intelligent Security Management platform enables users with Cisco Systems switches, routers and firewalls (Pix, ASA, FirePower) to work smarter, applying intelligence to the entire security program

Fortinet Solution Brief
FireMon solutions for Fortinet
Juniper Solution Brief
FireMon solutions for Juniper
NSX Solution Brief
FireMon solutions for NSX
3 Steps to Gain Control of Cloud Security
Better cloud visibility brings better cloud security.
2018 State of the Firewall
The full report walks through budget needs, staffing concerns, five-year firewall strategies, and more about how network security professionals at best-in-class businesses of all sizes see the evolution of firewalls.
A Primer On Intent-Based Network Security
Intent-based network security (IBNS) decouples intent from implementation. In this model, intent becomes the bedrock of policies and controls, and implementation serves as the device-specific enforcement of the declared security goal.
Hybrid Cloud Security: Minding the Gap
Visibility is often a first step toward cloud security
The Four Factors Necessary For Zero Trust

FireMon helps organizations move towards Zero Trust by providing:

  • Visibility into the network
  • Analysis of network traffic flow and possible breach points
  • Security Intent to determine what’s permissible
  • Orchestration to consistently automate what needs to be done
5 Reasons to Implement Security Policy Orchestration and Automation

Reduce your attack surface with a Security Policy Orchestration and Automation solution like FireMon.

Managing Migration Mayhem
Migrations can strike fear into the heart of even the most seasoned security professional. Follow this roadmap for a smooth, successful migration.
Four Ways to Reduce Your Attack Surface

Larger attack surface means more opportunities for cybercriminals to do harm. Learn how FireMon can help you remove exposures before they become exploited.

Why GDPR is Nothing to Fear
A practical (and sometimes philosophical) guide to complying with the General Data Protection Regulation.
Four Key Factors for a Successful Migration

Migrations run the risk of cost overrun, delays and disruption of network service - often due to a lack of personnel and process to efficiently and effectively manage. To ensure a successful migration, consider these four key factors: 1) identifying and removing technical mistakes, 2) removing unused access, 3) refining and organizing what remains and 4) continuous, real-time monitoring.

Top 5 Requirements for Your NSPM Solution
Network Security Policy Management (NSPM) continues to be a difficult practice for organizations the world over. In the last 20 years, network security policies (e.g. firewall rules) have grown by more than 3,500%. Yes, you read that number correctly. Why is that?
Achieving Gartner's Recommendations for Secure Policy Configuration Assessment
Gartner research has uncovered a number of security policy challenges for enterprises. Among these challenges are the typical assessments necessary to fortify policy for compliance and improved security posture.
The Top 4 Myths of Policy Compliance & How to Avoid Non-Compliance
Welcome to the world of overflowing regulations and compliance standards, of evolving infrastructure and the ever-present breach. It's a world where 72% of security and compliance personnel say their jobs are more difficult today than just two years ago.
Planning Considerations for Compliance with GDPR
The GDPR deadline is approaching quickly. If you haven’t started your GDPR journey yet, now is the time.
2017 State of the Firewall
Networking continues to evolve, yet the firewall remains critical to securing today’s enterprises. FireMon is proud to present its 3rd Annual State of the Firewall Report
Firewall Cleanup Recommendations
The implications of firewall policy complexity, why it remains a problem today and how to resolve it.
Risk Solved: Automated, Real-Time Risk Analysis & Remediation
Risk analysis with real-time change configuration is key to managing security risks in your IT infrastructure.
Real-Time Data Triage
Our Immediate Insight platform from FireMon can help organizations overcome the limitations and gaps inherent to the current analytic market.
Bridging the SIEM Alert Triage Gap
Immediate Insight enables security teams to improve event triage and incident response, extending the value of your existing full-featured SIEM.
How Intelligent Policy Automation Can Increase the Speed & Security of Change Management Workflows
Intelligent Policy Automation
Intelligent Security Management

Helping Enterprise Security Teams Improve Resource Efficiency & Reduce Overall Risk Exposure

The Top 5 Myths of Data Breaches
Five of the biggest myths that exist about data breaches, and explain how and why they occur.
Firewall Sprawl: Top Four Security Gaps Exposed

Firewall technology has come a long way since its initial, most rudimentary forms. Next-Generation Firewalls (NGFW) are the latest development, and organizations are accelerating adoption to the new technology. But NGFWs aren’t a fix-all solution.

2016 State of the Firewall
2nd Annual State of the Firewall Report based on survey of 600 IT security practitioners.
Frost & Sullivan 2018 North American IoT Cybersecurity Technology Best Practices
Lumeta Honored with 2018 Best Practices Award for IoT Cybersecurity Technology Innovation
Using Security Policy And Automation (SPOA) Tools To Reduce The Attack Surface
Attack surfaces have expanded greatly in the past several years, in part because of the amount of new applications coming online via Internet of Things and increasingly connected technology. Organizations have an admittedly tough time keeping up with all the new touchpoints and the rapid expansion of the attack surface. Complete defense is nearly impossible, and many companies struggle with visibility issues, mismatched or misaligned firewall policies, and an inability to comprehensively test the security configurations they do have
The Zero Trust eXtended Ecosystem


Forrester’s Zero Trust Model of information security helps teams develop robust prevention, detection and incident response capabilities to protect their company's vital digital business ecosystem. This report will help security pros understand the technologies best suited to empowering and extending their Zero Trust initiatives and will detail how Forrester sees this model and framework growing and evolving.

Overcoming the Complexity Gap
Firewall Sprawl
Aberdeen Group
Quantifying the Value of Intelligent Security Management
Aberdeen Group
Network Security Analytics Brings Data-Driven Security Into the 21st Century
Automate Zero Trust Policy and Enforcement
The Return on Security of FireMon’s Security Manager
Convey Health Solutions Centralizes Firewall Management and Achieves Continuous Compliance with FireMon
For Convey Health Solutions, the FireMon solution streamlined their compliance efforts. With out-of-the-box and customizable compliance assessments, automated rule documentation and reporting, and workflows for rule review and recertification, FireMon can analyze and report in real-time that systems have been calibrated together to prevent unauthorized access and protect critical assets.
Oil and Energy Company Increases IT Operational Efficiency and Enhanced Rule and Policy Compliance with FireMon
This mid-sized US-based oil and energy company was seeking to improve both the operational efficiency of their IT organization and security operations. They needed to streamline their processes for proposing and implementing changes to their firewall rule base. At the same time, they needed to enhance the speed and efficiency with which they performed rule compliance audits post-change. Their ideal solution would need to effectively meet the needs of both their firewall administrators and security analysts.
Large Healthcare Provider
The customer sought a data analysis tool to correlate application data with network and security data to spot service-impacting anomalies. They did not have an accurate picture of interoperability between applications and the underlying infrastructure.
Major Airline
Following a merger with another airline, this customer was left managing a large number of firewalls and routers from different security vendors using a home-grown application.
National Insurance Provider
This national insurance provider had three problems to tackle regarding their firewall policies. First, the number of rules under management was overwhelming staff and processes. They needed to increase visibility and effectiveness of their firewall change request/workflow ticketing process. And they also need help maintaining compliance PCI DSS requirements.
Managed Service Provider
Each time this Global MSP engaged a new customer, they had to onboard the firewalls – sometimes hundreds per engagement – into their network. Part of the onboarding process required assessing the policies against internal best practices – a manual, line-by-line process that took an average of 16 hours/firewall and was extremely error-prone.